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1436 -- Johannes Gutenberg invents movable-type printing press.

1455 -- Gutenberg Bible printed.

1481 -- Spanish Inquisition against Jews, Muslims, and heretics begins.

1483 -- Martin Luther born in Eisleben, Nov. 10; baptized Nov. 11.

1492 -- Columbus reaches the Americas.

1499 -- Katharina von Bora (Luther's wife) born in Lippendorf, Jan. 29.

1501 -- Luther enters University of Erfurt (receives master of arts in philosophy, 1505).

1502 -- Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, founds University of Wittenberg.

1505 -- Luther in thunderstorm, July 2; enters monastery, July 17.

1506 -- Pope Julius II lays cornerstone of St. Peter's Basilica, Rome; Luther takes final vows as Augustinian Monk, autumn.

1507 -- Luther ordained priest at Erfurt Cathedral, April 3; Luther celebrates first Mass, May 2; Luther begins study of theology.

1508 -- Michelangelo begins painting Sistine Chapel, completed 1512.

1509 -- Luther obtains bachelor of theology degree, March 9, returns to Erfurt; Henry VIII becomes king of England.

1510 -- First African slaves brought to the New World (Haiti).

1511 -- Luther sent to Wittenberg University to serve as professor, takes over chair of Staupitz at Wittenberg.

1512 -- Luther awarded doctor of theology degree, Oct. 18--19.

1513 -- Ponce de Leon reaches Florida; Pope Leo X begins pontificate, March 11.

1517 -- Pope Leo X declares indulgence for rebuilding of St. Peter's; Luther nails 95 Theses to Castle Church door in Wittenberg, Oct. 31.

1518 -- Process against Luther begins in Rome.

1521 --Luther excommunicated by papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem, Jan. 3; Luther appears before Diet of Worms and refuses to recant, April 17--18; Charles V issues Edict of Worms, declaring Luther a public outlaw and criminal and making it illegal to have Luther's books, May 25; Frederick the Wise hides Luther at the Wartburg Castle for eleven months; Luther translates New Testament into German, from December to March 1522.

1523 --Escaped nuns from Nimbschen, including Katharina von Bora (Luther's future wife), arrive in Wittenberg, April 7.

1525 -- Luther marries Katharina von Bora, June 13; Luther's German Mass first used, Dec. 25.

1526 -- Hans Luther born (first child of six to Luther and Katharina), June 7.

1527 -- Plague strikes Wittenberg; the Luthers turn their home into a hospital.

1528 -- Luther writes his Confession concerning Christ's Supper.

1529 -- Second Diet of Speyer, April, results in the issue of the Protestio, hence giving rise to the label "Protestant," which the Romanists applied to all who agreed with Luther; Luther publishes Large Catechism, April, and Small Catechism, May.

1531 -- Comet appears, eventually known as "Halley's Comet."

1533 --English King Henry VIII excommunicated, July 11.

1534 -- Ignatius of Loyola founds Society of Jesus (Jesuits), Aug. 15; Henry VIII declares himself to be head of the Church of England.

1536 -- Henry VIII allows English Bible in England.

1539 -- Catholic counter reformation begins in earnest.

1541 -- De Soto reaches the Mississippi River, May 8.

1543 -- Spanish Catholics begin to burn Protestants at the stake.

1545 -- Council of Trent's first sessions, 1545--1547.

1546 -- Luther dies at Eisleben, Feb. 18; Luther is buried at Castle Church in Wittenberg, Feb. 22.

1551 -- Council of Trent holds more sessions, 1551--1552.

1555 -- Peace of Augsburg allows Lutherans equal rights in Holy Roman Empire; Pope Paul IV begins pontificate, makes stamping out Protestantism high priority.

1559 -- John Knox brings Calvinism to Scotland.

1563 -- Council of Trent ends, settling Roman doctrine and establishing Roman Catholic Church.

1577 -- Francis Drake begins circumnavigating globe.

1582 -- Gregorian calendar implemented by Pope Gregory XIII.

1586 --Colony of Roanoke established in Virginia.

1595 -- Rene Descartes, a key leader of the Enlightenment, born, March 31.

1598 -- French King Henry IV grants religious freedom to Protestants via Edict of Nantes, April 13.

1600 -- First performance of Hamlet at Globe Theater.

1618 -- Thirty Years' War begins.

1997 -- Lutheran and Catholics sign Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification.

SOURCE: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions

NAN Religion on 10/28/2017

Print Headline: Reformation time line

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