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story.lead_photo.caption This June 26, 2008, file photo shows a developer solution vial (left) and test device (right) for an oral rapid HIV test at a medical center in the Bronx borough of New York. - Photo by AP / TINA FINEBERG

CHICAGO -- Fewer than 1 in 4 high school students who've had sex have ever been tested for HIV, a low rate that didn't budge over eight years, government researchers say. Young adults fared slightly better, although testing rates have declined in black women, a demographic labeled as high-risk.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a preventive health panel recommend routine HIV testing at least once for teens and adults. They also advise at least yearly screening for high-risk patients including those with multiple sex partners, gay or bisexual boys and men, and injection-drug users. The American Academy of Pediatrics has similar advice targeting teens only.

Nearly half of U.S. high school students have had sex, often without using condoms, which can help prevent the spread of HIV. About 15 percent report having had at least four sexual partners.

Some teens underestimate their HIV risk and have doctors who are unaware of the recommendations, according to the CDC researchers who did the study. The health agency says inadequate sex education is another challenge; in a report last month, it said fewer than half of U.S. high schools and middle schools teach CDC-recommended sexual-health education including HIV-related topics.

Other CDC data show an overall decline in HIV cases nationwide in recent years. About 50,000 people are diagnosed each year with HIV.

The study was published online Tuesday in Pediatrics.

Led by CDC health scientist Michelle Van Handel, the researchers analyzed 2005-13 national health surveys involving high school students, and 2011-13 surveys involving adults ages 18 to 24.

Overall, 22 percent of high school students reported having been tested for HIV -- and only one-third who'd had at least four sexual partners. Those rates remained stable during the study.

The rate remained at an average of 27 percent for young adult men but dipped among young women from 42 percent to 40 percent. It was much higher for black women but fell from 69 percent to 60 percent.

Nearly 10,000 13- to 24-year-olds were diagnosed with HIV in 2014, CDC data show. The rate was minimal for 13-year-olds, climbed to almost 9 out of 100,000 for 15- to 19-year-olds and nearly tripled for 20- to 24-year-olds. Van Handel said those spikes in infections underscore the importance of starting testing early.

Adults ages 25 to 29 have the highest infection rate among age groups -- almost 36 per 100,000. Rates are higher among some other groups, including blacks.

HIV screening can be done with simple blood draws, mouth swabs or urine tests; insurance generally covers FDA-approved lab tests as free preventive care. Routine testing offers the best chance for early detection and treatment, the CDC says.

A Section on 01/20/2016

Print Headline: U.S. study says few teens tested for HIV

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